a. In order to face the aforementioned challenges, NATO decided to design the following Deployable Forces, starting from the years 2003/2004.
(1) High Readiness Forces, able to conduct, at short notice, "Article 5 - Collective Defense" operations, as well as "Non- Article 5 - Crisis Response Operations", inside, around and in distant NATO areas. A part of the High Readiness Forces will maintain a relatively higher readiness level and they will be used at the initial phase of the operations, as Initial Entry Force (IEF).
(2) Forces of Lower Readiness, capable to conduct Article 5 operations (Collective Defense), and periodically replace the forces involved in non-Article 5, as well as for the reinforcement of the above forces.
b. A relevant attitude is gradually developed in the EU as well.